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Promising Program Seal

Targeted Reading Intervention

Blueprints Program Rating: Promising

Individualized instruction by classroom teachers takes the form of 15-minute sessions for a struggling reader in kindergarten and first grade until the child makes rapid progress in reading and then the teacher works with another struggling reader.

Program Outcomes

  • Academic Performance
  • Preschool Communication/Language Development

Program Type

  • Academic Services
  • School - Individual Strategies
  • Teacher Training

Program Setting

  • School

Continuum of Intervention

  • Indicated Prevention (Early Symptoms of Problem)

Age

  • Late Childhood (5-11) - K/Elementary

Gender

  • Male and Female

Race/Ethnicity

  • All Race/Ethnicity

Endorsements

  • Blueprints: Promising

Program Information Contact

Dr. Lynne Vernon-Feagans
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
301K Peabody Hall, #3500
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3500
(919) 843-5623
lynnevf@email.unc.edu
targetedreadingintervention.org

Program Developer/Owner

  • Dr. Lynn Vernon-Feagans
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Brief Description of the Program

Targeted Reading Intervention has the classroom teacher – rather than a specialized tutor or educator – deliver individualized instruction to struggling readers in regular kindergarten and first-grade classrooms. The instruction takes the form of 15-minute one-on-one instructional sessions in the regular classroom until the child makes rapid progress, and the teacher can go on to instruct another struggling reader. Teachers use a variety of word and comprehension strategies to improve reading and emphasize both identification of letter sounds in words and comprehension of words in text. The program intends primarily to help struggling readers, particularly those in rural, low-wealth communities where teachers have limited access to professional development and students have little access to intervention services. Along with helping struggling readers, the program aims to provide effective professional development for teachers, with the intention to benefit all students in the classroom.

See: Full Description

Outcomes

Amendum et al. (2011)

  • Struggling readers in the experimental schools had higher posttest scores than struggling readers in the control schools on all four Woodcock Johnson reading measures: Word Attack, Word-Letter Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Spelling of Sounds.
  • Both struggling and non-struggling readers in the experimental schools had higher posttest scores than struggling and non-struggling readers in the control schools on three of the four reading measures: Word Attack, Word-Letter Identification, and Passage Comprehension.

Vernon-Feagans et al. (2009, 2010)

  • Both struggling and non-struggling readers in the experimental schools had higher posttest scores than struggling and non-struggling readers in the control schools on all four Woodcock Johnson reading measures: Word Attack, Word-Letter Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Spelling of Sounds.
  • In some cases, struggling readers improved enough to catch-up with their non-struggling peers.

Race/Ethnicity/Gender Details

The treatment proved similarly effective for demographic subgroups.

Risk and Protective Factors

Risk Factors
  • School: Poor academic performance
Protective Factors
  • School: Instructional Practice, Opportunities for prosocial involvement in education

See also: Targeted Reading Intervention Logic Model (PDF)

Training and Technical Assistance

For information see Targeted Reading Training

Brief Evaluation Methodology

All studies of Targeted Reading Intervention randomly assigned a small number of schools (from 4 to 16) to an experimental condition implementing the reading program and a control condition teaching reading as usual. The schools came from rural disadvantaged areas of the southeastern and southwestern United States. Within each kindergarten and first-grade classroom in the experimental and control schools, five struggling readers and five non-struggling readers were selected. These students were assessed in the fall at the beginning of the school year and in the spring near the end of the school year. Analyses compared experimental and control schools on measures of reading outcomes in the spring for both struggling and non-struggling readers.

Peer Implementation Sites

Bearfield Primary School
145 Herford County High School Road
Ahoskie, NC 27910
(252) 209-6140
Contact: Principal Julie Shields

References

Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Feagans, L. V., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 107-131.

Vernon-Feagans, L., Amendum, S., Kainz, K., Ginsberg, M., Wood, T., & Bock, A. (2009). The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI): A classroom teacher tier 2 intervention to help struggling readers in early elementary school. In Evidence for Interventions for Struggling Readers. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, D.C.

Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Hedrick, A., Ginsberg, M., & Amendum, S. (in press). The Targeted Reading Intervention: A classroom teacher professional development program to promote effective teaching for struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. The Journal of Educational Psychology.